Rulers index

The diplomatic letters were sent to Batavia Castle by hundreds of different kings, sultans, governors and other power holders from across a very broad region which included not only the Indonesian archipelago, but the whole of Asia, and stretching west as far as the Middle East, Africa and Europe. All of these rulers had their successors, and this is also evident when studying these letters. In different ways, this page provides a clear overview of all the rulers found in these letters, including their kingdoms’ locations, the period of their respective reigns, and the amount of letters they sent and received.

The top ten diplomats and monarchs who corresponded with Batavia by diplomatic letter are presented here:

Download the full overview here of the rulers and ordered by their total number of letters

Download the full overview here, ordered geographically and chronologically

Download more background information about the rulers and the chronology of their reign, as presented here in a separate overview by Maarten Manse and Simon Kemper

Browsing and searching for rulers

The names of the rulers engaged in this diplomatic correspondence can be browsed and searched for. This includes both the original correspondents and those receiving the letters. The ruler’s names are standardized according to modern spelling and are arranged alphabetically. Rulers may have different alternative names in the letters, and these alternative names are also mentioned for each ruler. For research purposes, the ruler’s alternative names will all direct the researcher to the standardized name.

You searched for: first_letter is P. We found 189 results.

Name Alternative names Location Number of letters
Paduka Muhammad Maz-Udin Gorontalo 3
Paduka Mulana Iskandar King of Batu Daya Binta Una
Iskandar Talucci
Batu Daya 1
Paduka Pangeran Abdul Halim Zamsul Alam Son of Sultan Agung Tirtayasa
Banten 1
Paduka Raja (1637-1682) Sri Paduka Tun Pikrama Tun Habib ‘Abdu’l Majid bin Tun Mat ‘Ali, Datu Bendahara Sri Maharaja
Datu Laksamana
Johor 10
Paduka Raja Bandara Son of Pangeran Serigala
Raja Solok
Solok 1
Paduka Ratu Anum Kasumayuda (1792-1817) Paduka Ratu Anom Kasumayuda
Kotawaringin 9
Paljette Cami Cochinese warlord
Kochi 2
Panembahan Batu Banjarmasin 1
Panembahan Cakraningrat II (1648-1707) Raden Undakan
Bangkalan 46
Panembahan Cirebon I Muhammad Nasaruddin (1662-1714) Wangsakerta
Pangeran Abdul Kamil Muhammad Nasarudin
Panembahan Cirebon I Muhammad
Panembahan Tohpati
Cirebon 73
Panembahan Cirebon II Muhammad Muhyiddin (1725-1731) Panembahan Cirebon II Muhammad Muhyiddin Muhyiddin
Son of Panembahan Cirebon I Muhammad Nasruddin
Cirebon 32
Panembahan Kusuma Alam Banjarmasin 2
Panembahan Kusuma Dilaga (1717-1730) Banjarmasin 17
Panembahan Ratu I (1570-1649) Pangeran Emas
Grandson of Sunan Gunung Jati
Cirebon 1
Panembahan Ratu Sukadana Ruler of Sukadana
Sukadana 3
Panembahan Siri Dilaga Pangeran Nata Dilaga
Tanjungpura 1
Panembahan Suraningrat Pasisir 2
Panembahan Syarif Kasim (1787-1808) Mempawah 14
Pangeran Adi Wijaya Pangeran Adewijaja
Palembang 1
Pangeran Adipati Anum Son of Sultan Sepuh II Syamsuddin
Cirebon 26